ADDITIONAL READING

Biologic Agents in Rheumatology: A Virtual Reality Tour through Psoriatic Arthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

Additional Reading

  1. Cantini F, et al. Second-line biologic therapy optimization in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2017;47(2):183-92.
  2. Cantini F, et al. Tailored first-line biologic therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2016;45(5):519-32.
  3. Coates L, et al. Psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis: Is all inflammation the same? Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2016;46(3):291-304.
  4. Jafri K, et al. Incidence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: A population-based study. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2017;69(1):51-57.
  5. Lauper K, et al. Incidence and prevalence of major adverse cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and axial spondyloarthritis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2018 Apr 2. doi: 10.1002/acr.23567. [Epub ahead of print]
  6. Lopez-Gonzalez R, et al. Adherence to biologic therapies and associated factors in rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and psoriatic arthritis: a systematic literature review. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2015;33(4):559-69.
  7. Lubrano E, et al. Clinical remission in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2018 Mar 16. [Epub ahead of print].
  8. Madan J, et al. Consensus decision models for biologics in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis: Recommendations of a multidisciplinary working party. Rheumatol Ther. 2015;2(2):113-25.
  9. Nas K, et al. Comorbidities in patients with psoriatic arthritis: a comparison with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Int J Rheum Dis. 2015;18(8):873-9.
  10. Ogdie A, et al. Cause-specific mortality in patients with psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017;56(6):907-11.
  11. Roubille C, et al. Evidence-based recommendations for the management of comorbidities in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis: Expert opinion of the Canadian Dermatology-Rheumatology Comorbidity Initiative. J Rheumatol. 2015;42(10):1767-80.
  12. Veale D, et al. What makes psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis so different? RMD Open. 2015;1(1):e000025.
  13. Verheul M, et al. Biomarkers for rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis. Clin Immunol. 2015;161(1):2-10.

Psoriatic/Rheumatoid Arthritis Resources: Associations/Foundations
American Academy of Dermatology

American College of Rheumatology

Rheumatology Research Foundation

Arthritis Foundation

World Health Organization

Oculus Virtual Reality View: New Biologics for Improved Skin Clearance in Psoriasis

Additional Reading

  1. Alamdari HS, et al. Psoriasis and cardiovascular screening rates in the United States. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12:e14-9.
  2. Amatya B, et al. Patients’ perspective of pruritus in chronic plaque psoriasis: A questionnairebased study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008;22:822–6.
  3. Armstrong A, et al. From the Medical Board of the National Psoriasis Foundation: Treatment targets for plaque psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;76(2):290-8.
  4. Boehncke W, et al. Unmet needs in the field of psoriasis: Pathogenesis and treatment. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2017 Aug 6. doi: 10.1007/s12016-017-8634-3.
  5. Brezinski E, et al. An evidence-based review of the mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety of biologic therapies in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Curr Med Chem. 2015;22(16):1930-42.
  6. Brezinski EA, et al. Economic burden of psoriasis in the United States: A systematic review. JAMA Dermatol. 2015 Jan 7. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2014.3593.
  7. Daudén E, et al.; on behalf of the Working Group on Comorbidity in Psoriasis. Clinical practice guideline for an integrated approach to comorbidity in patients with psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013;27:1387-404.
  8. Gisondi P, et al. Treatment approaches to moderate to severe psoriasis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(11):E2427.
  9. Kragballe K, et al. Unmet needs in the treatment of psoriasis. Eur J Dermatol. 2014;24(5):523-32.
  10. Lebwohl M. Does treatment of psoriasis reduce cardiovascular comorbidities? J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137(8):1612-3.
  11. Lonnberg A, et al. Co-morbidity in psoriasis: mechanisms and implications for treatment. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2017;13(1):27-34.
  12. Ogawa E, et al. Pathogenesis of psoriasis and development of treatment. J Dermatol. 2018;45(3):264-72.
  13. Takeshita J, et al. Patient-reported outcomes for psoriasis patients with clear versus almost clear skin in the clinical setting. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;71(4):633-41.
  14. Takeshita J, et al. Psoriasis and comorbid diseases: Implications for management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;76(3):393-403.

Psoriasis Resources: Associations/Foundations
American Academy of Dermatology

American Dermatological Association

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

National Psoriasis Foundation

World Health Organization

Armstrong A, Fretzin S, McBride S, et al. Treatment with Ixekizumab over 60 Weeks Provides Sustained Improvements in Work Productivity and Activity Levels: Results from UNCOVER-1, a Phase 3 Trial in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Psoriasis. American Academy of Dermatology Annual Meeting, Washington, DC; March 4-8, 2016.Poster 2711.

Ahlehoff O, Skov L, Gislason G, et al. Pharmacological undertreatment of coronary risk factors in patients with psoriasis: observational study of the Danish nationwide registries. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e36342.

Alamdari HS, Gustafson CJ, Davis SA, Huang W, Feldman SR. Psoriasis and cardiovascular screening rates in the United States.J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12:e14-9.

Amatya B, Wennersten G, Nordlind K. Patients’ perspective of pruritus in chronic plaque psoriasis: A questionnaire-based study. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 2008;22:822–826.

Armstrong AW et al. Quality of life and work productivity impairment among psoriasis patients: findings from the National Psoriasis Foundation survey data 2003-2011. PLoS One. 2012;7:e52935.

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Berth-Jones J, Grotzinger K, Rainville C, et al. A study examining inter- and intrarater reliability of three scales for measuring severity of psoriasis: Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, Physician’s Global Assessment and Lattice System Physician’s Global Assessment. Br J Dermatol. 2006;155:707-713.

Bissonnette R, Iversen L, Sofen, et al. Tofacitinib withdrawal and retreatment in moderate-to severe chronic plaque psoriasis: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2015;172:1395-1406.

Blauvelt A, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Continuous Ixekizumab Treatment for 60 Weeks in Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis: Results from the UNCOVER-3 Trial. American Academy of Dermatology Annual Meeting, Washington, DC; March 4-8, 2016. Late-Breaker Abstract #3855.

Blauvelt A, Ball S, et al. Safety profile of patients achieving complete or near complete resolution of moderate-to-severe psoriasis after 12 weeks of etanercept or ixekizumab: Integrated analyses from UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3. Academy of Dermatology Annual Meeting, Washington, DC; March 4-8, 2016. Late-Breaker Abstract #2709.

Brezinski EA, Dhillon JS, Armstrong AW. Economic Burden of Psoriasis in the United States: A Systematic Review. JAMA Dermatol. 2015 Jan 7. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2014.3593.

Bushnell D, Martin M, McCarrier K, et al. Validation of the Psoriasis Symptom Inventory (PSI), a patient-reported outcome measure to assess psoriasis symptom severity. J Dermatolog Treat 2013;24:356-60.

Cather J, Young M, Bergman M. Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2017;10(3):S16-S25.

Chan SA, Hussain F, et al. Factors affecting adherence to treatment of psoriasis: comparing biologic therapy to other modalities. J Dermatolog Treat. 2013;24:64-9.

Choi J, Koo,J. Quality of life issues in psoriasis. J Amer Acad of Dermatology 2003;49(2)Suppl:57-61.

Coimbra S, Figueiredo A, Santos-Silva A. Brodalumab: an evidence-based review of its potential in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Core Evid 2014;9:89-97.

Coumbe AG, Pritzker MR, Duprez DA. Cardiovascular risk and psoriasis: beyond the traditional risk factors. CAm J Med 2014;127:12-8.

Crow JM. Psoriasis uncovered. Nature. 2012 Dec 20;492(7429):S50-1.

Croxtall JD. Ustekinumab: a review of its use in the management of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Drugs. 2011;71(13):1733–1753.

Daudén E, Castañeda S, Suárez C, et al.; on behalf of the Working Group on Comorbidity in Psoriasis. Clinical practice guideline for an integrated approach to comorbidity in patients with psoriasis.J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013;27:1387-404.

Devaux S, Castela A, Archier E et al. Adherence to topical treatment in psoriasis: a systematic literature review. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2012; 26:61–7.

Gordon K, Blauvelt A, Langley R, et al. Ixekizumab for Treatment of Moderate‐to‐Severe Plaque Psoriasis: 60‐week Results from a Double‐Blind Phase 3 Induction and Randomized Withdrawal Study (UNCOVER‐1). American Academy of Dermatology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA; March 20–24, 2015 Poster F010.

Grozdev I, Kast D, Cao K, et al. Physical and Mental Impact of Psoriasis Severity as Measured by the Compact Short Form-12 Health Survey (SF-12) Quality of Life Tool. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132: 1111–1116.

Griffiths CE, Reich K, Lebwohl M, et al. UNCOVER-2; UNCOVER-3 investigators. Comparison of ixekizumab with etanercept or placebo in moderate-to-severe psoriasis (UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3): results from two phase 3 randomised trials. Lancet. 2015:386:541-551.

Griffiths CE, Strober BE, van de Kerkhof P, et al. Comparison of ustekinumab and etanercept for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. N Engl J Med. 2010;362(2):118–128.

Guenther L, Cathers J, Lebwohl M, et al. Impact of ixekizumab treatment on sexual function in moderate-to-severe psoriasis patients: 12 week results from two Phase 3 trials UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3. American Academy of Dermatology Annual Meeting, Washington, DC; March 4-8, 2016. Abstract #2712.

Gupta MA, Gupta AK, Watteel GN. Perceived deprivation of social touch in psoriasis associated with greater psychologic morbidity: an index of the stigma experience in dermatologic disorders. Cutis 1998; 61:339–342.

Harrington LE, Hatton RD, Mangan PR, et al. Interleukin 17-producing CD4+ effector T cells develop via a lineage distinct from the T helper type 1 and 2 lineages. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:1123–1132.

Hongbo Y, Thomas CL, Harrison MA, Salek MS, Finlay AY: Translating the science of quality of life into practice: What do dermatology life quality index scores mean? J Invest Dermatol 2005;125:659–664.

Herrinton LJ, Liu L, Weng X, Lewis JD, Hutfless S, Allison JE. Role of thiopurine and anti-TNF therapy in lymphoma in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106:2146-53.

Janowski K, Steuden S, Bogaczewicz J. Clinical and psychological characteristics of patients with psoriasis reporting various frequencies of pruritus. Int J Dermatol. 2014 Jul;53(7):820-9.

Johnson-Huang LM, Lowes MA, Krueger JG. Putting together the psoriasis puzzle: an update on developing targeted therapies. Dis Model Mech. 2012 Jul;5(4):423-33.

Kikly K, Liu, Na S, Sedgwick J. The IL-23/Th(17) axis: therapeutic targets for autoimmune inflammation. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 2006;18:670-675.

Kimball AB, Gladman D, Gelfand JM, et al. National Psoriasis Foundation clinical consensus on psoriasis comorbidities and recommendations for screening. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58(6):1031–1042.

Kimball AB, Jacobson C, Weiss S, Vreeland MG, Wu Y: The psychosocial burden of psoriasis. Am J Clin Dermatol 2005;6:383–392.

Kimball A, Luger T, Gottlieb A, et al. Treatment with ixekizumab over 60 weeks also provided sustained improvements in itch and other patient reported outcomes Results from UNCOVER-1, a Phase 3 Trial. American Academy of Dermatology Annual Meeting, Washington, DC; March 4-8, 2016. Abstract #2501

Krueger GG, Langley RG, Finlay AY, et al. A: Patient-reported outcomes of psoriasis improvement with etanercept therapy: results of a randomized phase III trial. Br J Dermatol 2005;153:1192–1199.

Kurizky PS, Mota LM. Sexual dysfunction in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis–a systematic review. Rev Bras Reumatol. 2012;52(6):943-8.

Langley RG, Elewski BE, Lebwohl M, et al.; ERASURE Study Group; FIXTURE Study Group. Secukinumab in plaque psoriasis–results of two phase 3 trials. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(4):326-38.

Langley R, Burge R, Feldman S, et al. Treatment with ixekizumab over 60 weeks provides sustained improvements in health-related quality of life: Results from UNCOVER-1, a randomized Phase 3 trial. American Academy of Dermatology Annual Meeting, Washington, DC; March 4-8, 2016. Abstract #2710.

Lebwohl M, Papp K, Han C, Schenkel B, Yeilding N, Wang Y, Krueger GG: Ustekinumab improves health-related quality of life in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis: results from the PHOENIX 1 trial. Br J Dermatol 2010, 162:137–146.

Lebwohl M, Strober B, Menter A, et al. Phase 3 Studies Comparing Brodalumab with Ustekinumab in Psoriasis.N Engl J Med. 2015;373(14):1318-28.

Leonardi CL, Kimball AB, Papp KA, et al. Efficacy and safety of ustekinumab, a human interleukin-12/23 monoclonal antibody, in patients with psoriasis: 76-week results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (PHOENIX 1). Lancet. 2008;371:1665–1674.

Leonardi C, Matheson R, Zachariae C, et al. Anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody ixekizumab in chronic plaque psoriasis. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(13):1190–1199.

Leonardi C, et al. Rapid Onset of Efficacy in Patients with Psoriasis Treated with Ixekizumab: A Pooled Analysis of Data from Two Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trials (UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3). American Academy of Dermatology Annual Meeting, Washington, DC; March 4-8, 2016. Abstract #3100.

Mahajan R, Handa S. Pathophysiology of psoriasis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2013;79:S1-9.

Mansouri B, Patel M, Menter A. Biological therapies for psoriasis. Expert Opin Biol Ther 2013;13:1715-30.

Mariette X, Tubach F, Bagheri H, et al.Lymphoma in patients treated with anti-TNF: results of the 3-year prospective French RATIO registry. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010; 69: 400-8.

McDonough E, Ayearst R, Eder L, Chandran V, et al. Depression and anxiety in psoriatic disease: prevalence and associated factors. J Rheumatol. 2014;41(5):887-96.

McInnes IB, Mease PJ, Kirkham B, et al. Secukinumab, a human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, in patients with psoriatic arthritis (FUTURE 2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2015;386(9999):1137-46.

Mrowietz U, Chouela EN, et al. Pruritus and quality of life in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis: post hoc explorative analysis from the PRISTINE study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Jun;29(6):1114-20.

Menter A, Gottlieb A, Feldman S, et al.. Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis Section 1. Overview of psoriasis and guidelines of care for the treatment of psoriasis with biologics. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58:826-50.

Molina-Leyva A, Jiménez-Moleón JJ. Sexual dysfunction in psoriasis: a systematic review. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Apr;29(4):649-55.

National Institutes of Health. Psoriasis. Available at: http://report.nih.gov/nihfactsheets/ViewFactSheet.aspx?csid=61.

Nestle, F. O., Kaplan, D. H. and Barker, J. Psoriasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 2009. 361, 496-509.

Papp K, Ball S, Blauvelt A, et al. Efficacy of ixekizumab therapy: Integrated analysis of 3 double-blind, controlled trials. American Academy of Dermatology Annual Meeting, Washington, DC; March 4-8, 2016. Abstract #3031.

Papp K, Cather J, Rosoph L, Sofen H, Langley RG, Matheson RT, Hu A, Day RM: The efficacy of apremilast, a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis: results of a phase 2 randomised study. Lancet 2012, 380:738–746.

Papp KA, Krueger JG, Feldman SR, et al. Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis: Long-term efficacy and safety results from 2 randomized phase-III studies and 1 open-label long-term extension study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Feb 18. pii: S0190-9622(16)00026-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2016.01.013.

Papp, K. A., Langley, R. G., Lebwohl, M., Krueger G, et al. Efficacy and safety of ustekinumab, a human interleukin-12/23 monoclonal antibody, in patients with psoriasis: 52-week results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (PHOENIX 2). Lancet 2008: 371,1675-1684.

Papp KA, Menter A, Strober B, et al. Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, in the treatment of psoriasis: a Phase 2b randomized placebo-controlled dose-ranging study. Br J Dermatol 2012; 167: 668–677.

Papp K, Menter MA, Raman M, et al. A Randomized Phase 2b Trial of Baricitinib, an Oral JAK1/JAK2 Inhibitor, in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Psoriasis. Br J Dermatol. 2016 Jan 22. [Epub ahead of print].

Papp K, Poulin Y, Vieira A. Examining the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with psoriasis: a critical review. Cutan Med Surg. 2013;17(2):89-105.

Papp K, Reich K, Leonardi CL, et al. Apremilast, an oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis: Results of a phase III, randomized, controlled trial (Efficacy and Safety Trial Evaluating the Effects of Apremilast in Psoriasis [ESTEEM] 1).J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;73(1):37-49.

Papp KA, Reich K, Paul C, et al. A prospective phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of brodalumab in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Br J Dermatol. 2016 Feb 23. [Epub ahead of print].

Prey S, Paul C, Bronsard V, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with plaque psoriasis: a systematic review of epidemiological studies. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24 Suppl 2:23-30.

Racz E, et al. Molecular pathophysiology of psoriasis and molecular targets of antipsoriatic therapy. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2009;11:e38.

Ravindran V, Scott DL, Choy EH: A systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy and toxicity of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and biological agents for psoriatic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2008, 67:855–859.

Raychaudhuri SK, Maverakis E, Raychaudhuri SP. Diagnosis and classification of psoriasis. Autoimmun Rev 2014;13:490-5.

Rich P, Gooderham M, Bachelez H, et al. Apremilast, an oral phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, in patients with difficult-to-treat nail and scalp psoriasis: Results of 2 phase III randomized, controlled trials (ESTEEM 1 and ESTEEM 2). J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Jan;74(1):134-42.

Reich K, Mrowietz U. Treatment goals in psoriasis.J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2007;5:566-574.

Reich A. and Szepietowski J. Clinical Aspects of Itch- Psoriasis. Chapter 4. Itch: Mechanisms and Treatment. Carstens E, Akiyama T, editors. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2014.

Revicki DA, Willian MK, Menter A, et al. Relationship between clinical response to therapy and health-related quality of life outcomes in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Dermatology. 2008;216:260-27.

Richards HL, Fortune DG, O’Sullivan TM, Main CJ, Griffiths CE. Patients with psoriasis and their compliance with medication. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;41(4):581–583.

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Signorovitch JE, Betts KA, et al. Comparative efficacy of biological treatments for moderate-to-severe psoriasis: a network meta-analysis adjusting for cross-trial differences in reference arm response. Br J Dermatol. 2015;172:504-12.

Strand V, Fiorentino D, Hu C, et al. Improvements in Patient-Reported Outcomes With Apremilast, an Oral Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Psoriasis. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2013;11(82).

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Takeshita J, Callis Duffin K, Shin DB, et al. Patient-reported outcomes for psoriasis patients with clear versus almost clear skin in the clinical setting. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014 Oct;71(4):633-41.

Takeshita J, Grewal S, Langan S, et al. Psoriasis and comorbid diseases: Implications for management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;76(3):393-403.

Takeshita J, Mohler ER, Krishnamoorthy P, et al. Endothelial cell-, platelet-, and monocyte/macrophage-derived microparticles are elevated in psoriasis beyond cardiometabolic risk factors. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Feb 28;3(1):e000507.

Takeshita J, Wang S, Shin DB, Mehta NN, Kimmel SE, Margolis DJ, Troxel AB, Gelfand JM. Effect of psoriasis severity on hypertension control: a population-based study in the United Kingdom. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151:161-9.

Thorneloe R, Bundy C, Griffiths C, Ashcroft, M, et al. Adherence to Medication in Patients with Psoriasis. A Systematic Literature Review. The British Journal of Dermatology. 2013;168:20-31.

Toussirot E, Michel F, Béreau M, et al. Ustekinumab in chronic immune-mediated diseases: a review of long term safety and patient improvement. Patient Preference and Adherence 2013:7 369–377.

Zhu B, Edson-Heredia E, Guo J, et al. Itching is a significant problem and a mediator between disease severity and quality of life for patients with psoriasis: results from a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2014 Nov;171(5):1215-9.

Zhu B, Edson-Heredia E, Cameron GS, et al. Early clinical response as a predictor of subsequent response to ixekizumab treatment: results from a phase II study of patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Br J Dermatol. 2013;169(6):1337-41.

Young M, Aldredge L, Parker P. Psoriasis for the primary care practitioner. J Am Assoc Nurse Pract. 2017;29(3):157-178.

Yosipovitch G, Goon A, Wee J, Chan Y. H, Goh C. L. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of pruritus among patients with extensive psoriasis. Br. J. Dermatol. 2000;143:969–973.

Wang Y, Gao H, Loyd C, et al. Chronic Skin-Specific Inflammation Promotes Vascular Inflammation and Thrombosis. J Invest Dermatol. 2012; 132: 2067–2075.

Wu JJ, Poon KY, et al. Association between tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapy and myocardial infarction risk in patients with psoriasis. Arch Dermatol. 2012;148:1244-50.

Epidemiology

Challenges

Diagnosis

Cardiovascular Disease

Treatments

Additional Reading